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Caffein is assumed by many to be a dangerous, addictive stimulant. It is often consumed in its most ubiquitous form, coffee. Caffein has proven to be anything but harmful for an ever-increasing number of people. It’s been proven to have many performance and health benefits. Caffein ois sometimes viewed by many as an indulgence to be curtailed or banished outright. Coffee has still become the world’s most widely consumed beverage. One major java draw-card is its stimulant effect. The key ingredient responsible for many a stimulant-induced coffee addiction is, of course, caffeine.

FORGET ABOUT THE BAD REPUTATION
Caffeine’s undeserved reputation has been associated with several negatives. It is seen as a precursor to sleep deprivation, irritability, anxiety, and stomach irritation . These elements should be taken with a grain of salt. . The strategic implementation of caffeine may significantly improve many markers of good health, physical, and mental performance (5, 6, 8). Provided, of course, one’s daily ration of coffee is not guzzled by the gallon — or favorite pre-workout formulation is not downed in three-scoop dosages.

Coffee has been linked to lower rates of diabetes, reduced risk of cancer, and lower incidences of Parkinson’s disease (4). Yet, caffeine in isolated form or as found in pre-workout products and coffee remains a not-so-secret ingredient for optimizing performance. It does this by improving mood, memory and energy levels. In 2015 there was a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 studies involving more than 1,270,000 people. It found that those who consumed between 3-5 cups of coffee a day were less likely to experience cardiovascular problems (3). Many other such studies have presented similar findings.

Coffee, and in particular the stimulating nature of caffeine, is one vice many java junkies refuse to relinquish. Those contemplating a life without the day-defining “go juice” will be happy to know that they would be better served maintaining their current habit. Caffeine in its various forms may not only enliven your days, but also make you a battle-ready iron warrior; impervious to exhaustion, pain, and even depression.

BREECH THE PAIN BARRIER
The memory-enhancing, physical performance-boosting benefits of caffeine are widely known and revered among its legions of committed consumers. What may surprise many however are caffeine’s potent painkilling properties (12,15). In fact, scientists have discovered that a single cup of coffee works within minutes to quell pain over the short term. In one study, 50 men and women were ordered to thrust their arms into buckets of ice-cold water (7). Initially the men were able to withstand the extreme pain for longer than the women. Yet, upon receiving a 250mg dose of caffeine, tolerance to the cold was improved among the female volunteers, who were able to suppress pain for longer than the men (who, interestingly, received the same quantity of caffeine). In another study, the effects of caffeine on ischemic muscle contraction pain (a particularly intense form of pain associated with heart attacks) was measured (2). Upon receiving either 200mg of caffeine or a placebo, study participants were, upon resting for one hour, asked to raise their arms in order to drain them of blood. Blood pressure cuffs were duly attached to prevent blood from returning to the muscles. Wrist curls with small weights were then performed and each subject was asked to rate their pain at 15 second intervals. Pain reported by those in the caffeine group was significantly less than that experienced by members of the control group.

The potent analgesic effects of caffeine, as reported above, and in other studies, is largely attributable to its ability to block adenosine, a neurotransmitter responsible for carrying pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. Caffeine also activates the adrenaline pathways necessary for pain suppression, thus stimulating the body’s natural pain killing mechanisms. Caffeine consumption also precipitates central nervous system (CNS) stimulation. Pain signals are thus processed in such a way that pain suppression is more readily achieved. Fundamentally,  caffeine suppresses pain by providing relief at the site of injury. For heavy lifters, caffeine reduces muscle soreness by reducing inflammation and accelerating recovery to facilitate tissue healing (14). Central nervous system function is also revived with caffeine. This enables strength to be restored faster following intensive workouts.

Caffeine (an initial 200mg dose and 100mg every few hours) has long been valued for its ability to both prevent the onset and mask the pain of migraines. Now the world’s most popular drug of choice can be strategically used to address a wider range of pain-inducers. Take caffeine in the form of a reputable pre-workout such as Labrada Super Charge before your next brutal squat session to achieve an extra rep or two and promote faster recover.

A FATIGUE FIGHTER
Like many an esteemed artist, 19th Century novelist and playwright Honoré de Balzac prized caffeine’s mentally invigorating effects. “Coffee sets the blood in motion and stimulates the muscles; it accelerates the digestive processes, chases away sleep, and gives us the capacity to engage a little longer in the exercise of our intellects,” he famously proclaimed. Caffeine’s effectiveness when seeking to improve alertness, motivation, attention, reaction time (8, 10, 13) and reasoning are also not lost on those for which such attributes are essential for the preservation of life itself. Indeed, military personal are often reliant upon copious amounts of caffeine (and other stimulants) to stay focused and alert in the throes of battle. Many of these true heroes are known to ingest granulated coffee by the fistful to ward off mental and physical fatigue. As a universally available stimulant that is also legal and socially acceptable (not to mention of low toxicity and with low potential for abuse), caffeine is, for these warriors and also countless iron warriors in gym settings, a go-to supplement for enhancing aggression and physical and mental output (8).

Caffeine is particularly effective when performing tasks of a monotonous and repetitive nature (8). Grinding away in the gym (whether it be rep after rep of shoulder presses or 20 minutes of high intensity cardio) demands extreme focus and attention to correct form and intensity output. Caffeine, with its host of powerful ergogenic actions, can assist here (5). Aside from caffeine’s effect on CNS activity are the combined effects of its metabolites theobromine (which increases  oxygen and nutrient flow to the brain), theophylline (which relaxes the smooth muscles and increases heart rate efficiency) and paraxanthine (which aids lipolysis – the breakdown of fats for energy). In fact, caffeine increases fatty acid levels in the bloodstream to such a degree that carb stores are preserved and better utilized (11). This raises overall muscle endurance and helps the lifter stay energized, for longer. Combining carbs and caffeine pre and intra-workout is a known strategy for boosting athletic performance. However, taking this combo within 4 hours post-training has also been shown to increase physical output by increasing glycogen uptake by 66% (9).

By increasing neuronal firing and by triggering the pituitary gland to release adrenaline, caffeine jolts us into action and enhances productivity. In short, caffeine keeps us moving faster and more efficiently while making us stronger, for longer (8). Its inclusion as a staple component of all good pre-workout formulations (and also when used post-workout to boost muscle glycogen uptake) comes as no surprise.

MORE THAN A PICK-ME-UP
Both water and fat soluble, caffeine is, upon consumption, easily dissolved in the bloodstream before being rapidly shuttled across the blood-brain barrier to work its magic. Once infused with caffeine, the brain unleashes its natural stimulant supply and a range of powerful psychoactive effects ensue. Caffeine closely resembles a brain molecule called adenosine. Adenosine, when locked into its receptor sites, causes feelings of tiredness, thus ensuring the body receives much-needed rest as required. However, as it is structurally similar to adenosine, caffeine also fits neatly into adenosine receptor sites. With adenosine momentarily unemployed (for up to four hours), tiredness is thwarted and replaced with feelings of energy and alertness.

By blocking adenosine receptors, caffeine enhances the production and circulation of a plethora of natural brain stimulants (notably the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and adrenaline) (1). The combined and individual actions of these chemicals, when released in abundance, regulate anxiety, reduce depression, improve mood, increase motivation, combat mental fatigue and enhance emotional wellbeing (1, 16). Therefore, caffeine could be viewed more as a stimulant enabler than a stimulant itself. Whatever  the case, this unsurpassed supplemental energizer, when used judiciously, can alter brain chemistry for the better.

TO CAFFEINATE OR NOT?
The evidence is clear. Caffeine, when supplemented correctly and not abused, can assist human performance safely and more effectively than any other drug. Whether aiming for a new one-rep-max, maxing out muscle via an endurance event or channeling mental energy into a creative task (this article would not have been possible without a gallon or so of strong coffee), caffeine, for those addicted to its energizing effects, is an essential part of daily life.

Provided no more than 500mg per day of caffeine is consumed in divided doses or, better yet, used strategically (cycled and used strictly to aid intensive physical activity – for example, 300mg prior to working out), this ever-popular stimulant could be just the performance booster you have been looking for. As it only becomes toxic at around 150mg per kg of bodyweight (12g, or around 80 cups of coffee, per 80kg person per day), caffeine is one of the least problematic, yet most effective performance drugs available today. Better yet, it does not require a prescription. Nor will your coffee stash earn you a prison term. With that in mind it perhaps comes as no surprise that coffee is the second most traded commodity after oil.

Yet caffeine is addictive and comes with a host of (albeit relatively harmless) side effects (headaches, lethargy) lasting between 7-12 days upon cessation. To get the most from caffeine, consume it in the early part of the day and refrain from it in the hours before bed. Caffeine can also be cycled (for example, tapered to 1-2 cups of coffee per day and then increased to 6-7 over 4-5 day cycles) to boost its effectiveness. The most effective forms of caffeine are found in reputable pre-workout products. Take these for the express purpose of heightening mental and physical performance. All in all, caffeine can be your number one training partner. Use it to maximize your performance, not only in the gym, but in the arena of life


DavidRobsonAbout the author
David Robson is a prolific health and fitness author with a particular interest in how training, nutrition and mindset can assist bodybuilding progress, David Robson, a personal trainer and health educator, also walks the walk as a seasoned bodybuilding competitor. David, a Tae Kwon Do black belt, and second place-finisher at the 1997 World Natural Bodybuilding Championships, has competed internationally in both Tae Kwon Do and bodybuilding.

In addition, David, who holds separate degrees in psychology, journalism, teaching, and sports performance, is Founder and Director of Advanced Personal Training New Zealand (ATPNZ), a company set up to educate people on how to become fitter, healthier, and better-performing in their day-to-day life, and as athletes.

Charity work forms a large part of David’s life. As Founder and President of the New Zealand Wheelchair Bodybuilding Federation (NZWBBF) and Founder and Director of Fit Futures Charitable Trust, David provides sporting and fitness training opportunities for people with physical disabilities.

David also provides online coaching for fitness and bodybuilding results.

Contacted David at: advancedptnz@gmail.com


Education (partial history)
-University of Waikato: Bachelor of Sport and Leisure Studies (BSpLS). 2002
-University of Waikato: Graduate Diploma in Social Science – Psychology (GradDipSocSc). 2003
-Golden Key International Honour Society (inducted member). 2001
-Wintec: National Diploma in Journalism. 2004
-Wintec: Graduate Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (with Merit). 2011
-Network: Fitness Leader certification. 1996


REFERENCES
1.Bongiorno, P. Can Coffee Help Anxiety? Psychology Today. [Online] https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/inner-source/201509/can-coffee-help-anxiety – retrieved on 25.9.16 2.Daniel E. Meyers, High-Dose Caffeine May Be Effective Pain Reliever. Headache, November, 1997. 3.Ding, M., et al. Long-Term Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular DiseaseCirculation. February 11, 2014, Volume 129, Issue 6 4.Heid, M. Coffee: Is It Bad For You? Time. [Online] http://time.com/3145435/is-coffee-bad-for-you/ – retrieved on 25.9.16 5.Jacobson, B.H., et al. 1987. Effects of caffeine on simple reaction time and movement time. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 58:1153–1156. 6.Lieberman, H.R., et al. 1987. The effects of caffeine and aspirin on mood and performance. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 7:315–320. 7.Marsh, B. Is Coffee the New Painkiller. Daily Mail Australia. [Online] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-139858/Is-coffee-new-painkiller.html- retrieved on 25.9.16
8.Penetar, D. et al. Effects of Caffeine on Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Alertness in Sleep-Deprived Humans. [Online] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209050/ – retrieved on 25.9.16 9.Post-Exercise Caffeine Helps Muscles Refuel. American Physiological Society Press Release. [Online] http://www.the-aps.org/mm/hp/audiences/public-press/archive/08/24.html – retrieved on 25.9.126 10.Rosenthal, L., et al. 1991. Alerting effects of caffeine after normal and restricted sleep. Neuropsychopharmacology, 4:103–108. 11.Reynolds, G., How Coffee Can Galvanize Your Workout. New York Times. December 14, 2011 12.Sawynok, J., et al. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant: a review of pharmacology and mechanism of action. Pharmacological Review, 1993: 45 (1):43-85. 13.Snel, J., et al. Caffeine and Information Processing, inPleasure and Quality of Life, ed. D. Warburton and Sherwood, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, p. 114. 14.Ten foods to Reduce muscle Soreness and speed Recovery after a Tough Workout. Poliquin Group. [Online]http://main.poliquingroup.com/articlesmultimedia/articles/article/1262/top_ten_foods_to_reduce_muscle_soreness_speed_reco.aspx – retrieved on 25.9.16
15.Ward, A., et al. The analgesic effects of caffeine in headache. (1991) Pain, 44:151-155. 16.Wang L., et al. Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 Mar; 50(3):228-42.

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